Book Review: André Le Nôtre in Perspective: Edited by Patricia Bouchenot-Déchin and Georges Farhat      

9780300199390 Published to mark the 400th anniversary of his birth, André Le Nôtre in Perspective celebrates the life and legacy of France’s famous royal gardener through an exploration of his achievements as a designer, engineer and collector of fine art. Containing forty essays written by academics, curators, landscape architects, gardeners and hydraulic engineers, the book provides fresh insights into Le Nôtre’s extraordinary genius and enduring influence on landscape and garden design. The essays consider, in parallel, Le Nôtre’s position in society, the material conditions in which his art and work developed and the role his work played in shaping the design profession. It is divided into three sections; Le Nôtre and His Times, Le Nôtre’s Art and Work and Elsewhere and After. IMG_5724 Impeccably researched and lavishly illustrated, André Le Nôtre in Perspective, is a work of art, in and of itself, combining scholarship with exquisite illustrations, photographs and plans as well as designs and drawings from Le Nôtre’s notebooks. The essays present new research culled from documents unavailable in previous studies and provide a fresh perspective on Le Nôtre’s origins, family relations, social standing and clientele, reducing the aura of mystery surrounding the “famous and obscure” gardener to King Louis XIV. Le Nôtre’s multi-faceted relationship with Louis XIV is explored within the context of his role as architect of the king’s gardens, a responsibility that included providing designs for all of the royal establishments.  For forty-three years Le Nôtre served as Contrôleur general, overseeing finances for construction projects and monitoring their progress.  However, he maintained his passion for horticulture and never “were the spade and the rake completely replaced by the ledger and the pen”. IMG_5743 While André Le Nôtre in Perspective pays homage to Versailles, it fully explores other facets of his work, including that at the Tuileries Gardens (seen above), where recent historical and archaeological research have revealed his skill as a “master craftsman working in soil”. Chapters are devoted to individual elements of his designs, including vistas, sculptures, hydraulics, parterres, trees and groves, and each is placed within its historical context.

The formal French garden, as defined through Le Nôtre’s vision, has been extensively copied and adapted and is at once both historic and modern. While vilified by proponents of the picturesque, his work inspired the avant garde, providing inspiration for twentieth and twenty-first century designers as diverse as Fletcher Steele and Le Corbusier.  Versailles, Marly and the Champs- Elysees were the spatial models used by L’Enfant when he designed Washington, DC in 1791. In Landscapes of Clarity – Dan Kiley’s Modernist Origins in Seventeenth Century France, a recent post written by Charles Birnbaum, President of The Cultural Landscape Foundation, Le Nôtre’s influence on the  landscape architect Dan Kiley was revealed in a 1982 lecture at the University of Virginia, when he shared, “the person who inspired me the most is Le Nôtre.”


Vaux-le-Vicomte: 17th Century Engraving

This is not a book to be taken lightly.  With a shipping weight of 6.6 pounds, it contains 440 pages, 180 color images and 170 black-&-white illustrations (all of the highest quality). Despite its heft, André Le Nôtre in Perspective will not languish on your bookshelf (dusty or not) but will instead be read and reread, a rare treat to savor.

André Le Nôtre in Perspective
Edited by Patricia Bouchenot-Déchin and Georges Farhat
Editions Hazan: 2013

This review appeared in Leaflet: A Massachusetts Horticultural Society Publication, September, 2014.

Copyright © 2014 Patrice Todisco — All Rights Reserved 

Tower of London Remembers: The First World War

IMG_1653 - Version 2

To commemorate the centennial of the first full day of Britain’s involvement in the first World War the art installation Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red has transformed the famous moat surrounding the Tower of London into a field of bright red poppies, the flower that symbolizes the sacrifices made in war. It is a beautiful and evocative piece of public art that captures, in a simple yet eloquent manner, the enormity of that sacrifice.

Conceived by ceramic artist Paul Cummins and realized through a partnership with stage designer Tom Piper, Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red will include, upon its completion, 888,246 individual ceramic poppies each representing a soldier from Britain or a British colony who died in WWI. The poppies are hand made, take three days to fabricate and each is unique. They are “planted” by volunteers.


Eschewing formality the poppies are not arranged in orderly rows but instead undulate, forming a sea of red within the moat. They encase portions of the Tower flowing from a window and, in a 30 foot cascade, encircle its main entrance.


As an interactive, evolving installation, the poppies appear strikingly alive, a lyrical homage to an event that having occurred one hundred years ago is just out of grasp of direct experience. Yet the installation has distinctly captivated the public, selling more than 200,000 poppies in just four days and raising £5 million by August 8, 2014. It is anticipated that £19 million will be raised when the project is completed.


Individual poppies can be purchased for a £25 donation with the proceeds donated equally among six service charities dedicated to the support of veteran services. Buy a poppy and it will be sent to you when the installation concludes. The last day poppies will be added is November 11th, Armistice Day.


But why the red poppy?

Among all the flowers that evoke memories and emotions of war it is the red poppy which gained this distinction first. In 1915 following the funeral of a friend and fellow soldier who died at the Second Battle of Ypres, Belgium, Col. John McCrae of Canada composed the poem “In Flanders Fields” which begins:

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

The field poppy (papaver rheoas) is a resilient plant that flowers annually and in Western Europe it is the first wildflower to appear when soil is churned up. It was, along with the lark’s song, one of the few signs of nature sustained on the battlefield. A delicate, red flower, the poppy grew in disturbed ground including burial fields and for many soldiers was a sign of renewal.


Its transcendence as a modern day symbol of remembrance is attributed to two women, American Moina Michael and Frenchwoman, Anna Guerin. Each devoted their life to securing the memory of those who lost their lives in the war and each campaigned to make the poppy a national and international memorial symbol. To read the full story visit:


The Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States adopted the poppy as its official memorial flower and organized a nationwide distribution in 1922. Beginning in 1924 disabled ex-servicemen, started making poppies to distribute in support of veterans, in “poppy factories” throughout the world where they continue to be made by disabled, needy and aging veterans in VA Hospitals who are compensated for their work. Donations provide financial assistance to maintain state and national veterans’ rehabilitation and service programs while supporting veterans’ orphans and widows.

Cummins, the ceramic artist whose studio is hand making each poppy using techniques utilized by potters during WWI, found inspiration for the project in a line from a Derbyshire man who when surrounded by death and blood on a Flander’s field wrote “The Blood Swept lands, and seas of red, where angels fear to tread.” By transforming the poppy, symbol of remembrance, into a sea of red he has created a powerful metaphor that contrasts starkly with both the historic Tower and the modern city that surrounds it.


What then of memory and loss?  With each passing generation the immediacy of loss is lessened. As a memorial Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red is remarkably vibrant.  When complete, individual poppies will be sent to those who supported the project.  Each evening the Roll of Honour is read citing those who lost their lives in the war.  Responding to huge interest this is filmed and made available at:

As so much energy and time is spent erecting memorials I conclude  with the acknowledgement that Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red engaged me in a manner few other memorials have.  For certain on the Sunday I was there it was thronging with visitors.  But more importantly, I was driven to explore and understand more deeply the significance of the poppy which I purchase each year outside my local supermarket.  This tangible reminder of lives lost holds a deep connection to the ongoing sacrifices and horror of war.

Papaver rhoeas by John Curtis (1791-1862) © RHS, Lindley Library

Copyright © 2014 Patrice Todisco  — All Rights Reserved 

The Codman Estate: A Precious Jewel

IMG_0899 - Version 2

Every summer I develop two lists.  The first is of the books I plan to read.  The second is of the gardens I hope to visit.  By mid-August, as the possibility looms that I will complete neither task, I set out to visit local gardens to see them before the season changes.

Fortunately, there are many to choose from and, as is often the case, those that are geographically closest to my home are the ones that I am least likely to have visited. Many of these were created by wealthy families that maintained residences in Boston proper and summered in the countryside.  Here they engaged in rural pursuits as an antidote to city life while maintaining active social schedules.  The Codman Estate, (also known as the Grange) is one such example.


Comprised of sixteen acres of land that are the remnants of a seven hundred acre working farm assembled by Charles Chambers of Charlestown in the early 1700’s, the Codman Estate is located in Lincoln approximately 20 miles from downtown Boston.  The property has been occupied by Chamber’s descendants (with the exception of a 50 year period in the first half of the 19th century) until acquired by SPINEA, the predecessor of Historic New England, in 1969.


A ha-ha separates the formal from the informal landscape known as the Octagon.

Each generation shaped the landscape in their own fashion and as a result the Codman Estate contains diverse landscape features. Elements remain of the original plan, modeled in the English style. An Italianate garden, created by Sarah Bradlee Codman at the beginning of the 20th century is nestled below the house and a cottage garden, passionately tended by Sarah’s daughter Dorothy reflects the sensibilities of the Colonial Revival period.

Screen shot 2014-07-30 at 7.27.46 PM

The plans above and below, were drawn by landscape historian Alan Emmet and are included on Historic New England’s web site and in the essay, “The Codman Estate – “The Grange”: A Landscape Chronicle.” The plan above details the current property while the plan below depicts Chamber Russell’s farm ca. 1767.  The boundaries of the current property are visible at the center and delineated with a dotted line.  Land that was once part of Chamber’s farm is now part of Drumlin Farm, Lincoln’s business district and conservation holdings.

Screen Shot 2014-08-12 at 2.37.42 PM

In the 1790’s John Codman lll remodeled the house in the Federal style with a plan attributed to architect Charles Bulfinch. Codman, a founder of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, developed ambitious plans for the estate although it is unclear how many of these were realized.

Upon his death in 1803 the property passed to his son who, with no interest in farming, incrementally sold off parcels of the estate. Most egregiously, a seven acre strip of land was eventually sold to the Fitchburg railroad and as a result the commuter rail passes less than 200 yards from the house.


In 1862 John Codman III’s grandson, Ogden, acquired a portion of the original estate with the intent of restoring his grandfather’s “demesne.”  Ogden harbored a deeply romantic connection to his grandfather and the property and ardently wished to restore the estate as an agricultural enterprise.  Married to Sarah Fletcher Bradlee the previous year he named the property “The Grange” and he and his children, an eclectic bunch (none of whom married), lived at the estate until 1969 bequeathing it to SPINEA with a desire to preserve their family’s stories.


Water color of the house and terrace gardens by Sarah Bradlee Codman painted in 1898.

An enthusiastic gardener, Ogden Sr. studied horticultural trends and planted a diverse assortment of ornamental shrubs and trees while developing an ambitious farming operation. He maintained horses, ponies for sport, a dairy herd, hens and pigs and cultivated corn, hay and all of the family’s vegetables. In collaboration with his brother-in-law, architect John Hubbard Sturgis, Codman improved the house and grounds adding plumbing, heating and a carriage barn.


The carriage barn as seen from Dorothy Codman’s cottage garden.

However it was Sarah who created the property’s defining landscape feature, the “secret” Italian garden.

IMG_0891.JPG - Version 2

The statue of Bacchus is sited at the end of the lily pool on axis with the statue of Flora.

Located at the Northwest corner below the house in an area described as the “Pond Hole,” the Italian garden was begun by Sarah in 1899 when she was fifty-seven.  It’s classical style is attributed to the influence of her son, Ogden Jr, the successful architect and interior designer who collaborated with Edith Wharton on the influential book, The Decoration of Houses, and is in sharp contrast to the surrounding picturesque landscape.  Sarah designed and maintained the garden’s  plantings which included shade tolerant plants (ferns, foxglove and wildflowers) as well as roses, day lilies, phlox, lupine delphinium, gladiolas and peonies.

The garden’s construction and its architectural features were completed by the family’s coachman, handyman and Sarah’s son, Tom, who built the pergola’s concrete columns.  Sarah worked in the garden daily, often accompanied by her daughter, Dorothy.

The Codman’s maintained extensive records (including Sarah whose diary spans from her engagement to her death in 1922) providing detailed accounts of plant purchases and installations.  In 1892 Sarah’s diary records a visit by landscape architect Beatrix Jones Farrand a niece of Edith Wharton who most likely shared her expertise with the family.

IMG_0887.JPG - Version 2

The curved arbor is supported by marble columns with Corinthian capitals taken from a building in Exchange Place, Boston owned by Odgen, Sr.


The pergola was made from concrete with rough poles placed across the columns.

Eschewing the formality of her mother’s Italian garden, Dorothy created one of her own, in the style of an English cottage garden.  Located near the carriage barn Dorothy’s garden lacks a formal axis yet contains planting beds that are geometrically arranged and connected by narrow walks. It is enclosed with a simple fence and accented with wire arches planted with climbing roses and clematis. Herbs were planted amongst the flowers and a lily pool was surrounded by Japanese irises.


Sarah’s garden in 1911 (above) and today (below).


According to sources, Dorothy was inspired by the writing of Gertrude Jekyll whose books, including Colour in the flower garden published in 1908, were extremely popular. Among her many accolades, Jekyll, the most influential garden writer in the English-speaking world was awarded the George White Medal of Honour in 1929 by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.



As I was writing this piece the article “The dusty, important, endangered, historic House Museum” was published in the Boston Globe.  It appears that a vigorous debate is raging within the historic preservation community about the role and function of historic house museums. Historic New England, which owns and operates 36 public historic sites, including The Codman Estate, has assumed a leadership role in this debate.

The Codman House and its surrounding landscape form a remarkable ensemble shaped by individual dreams and aspirations.  Preserved as an example of an “elegant country estate” it is best described by historian Thomas Boylston Adams, a childhood neighbor, as “nothing but a silent exclamation point of beauty in a landscape itself as beautiful and arranged as the setting of a precious jewel.”


The Codman children with their ponies in 1872.

The House is open on the second and fourth Saturdays from June 1 to October 15 from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.   The grounds are open to the public year round.


Flora in the Italian garden.

For additional information and to see a virtual tour of the house visit:


 Copyright © 2014 Patrice Todisco  — All Rights Reserved




Kadriorg: The People’s Park


“Who really owns public spaces?” begins a review of the exhibition Open to the Public: Civic Space Now on exhibit through September at the AIA New York Center for Architecture.  Posted on The Atlantic’s City Lab, the review describes the changing function of parks and other urban open space in light of the shift from public ownership to those developed through private initiatives, noting “A park is no longer just a park; as a stage for the theater of public life it has become more complicated.”

Complications aside, parks have served as “stages for the theater of public life” for a very long time and perhaps none for as long as Kadriorg Park in Tallinn.  Described as the most outstanding palatial park in Estonia, it has been open to the public for 300 years at the wish of Russian Tsar Peter the Great who acquired the land that became the park in 1714.

According to records, “After Peter the Great’s wish, anyone interested could freely walk in the park; thus the royal park was a public place from the very beginning.”



Located approximately two and half miles from Tallinn’s medieval historic center (nominated as a World Heritage site in 1997) Kadriorg Park is sited in a neighborhood that began as a summer enclave for  affluent merchants outside the city’s walls.  Here Peter the Great purchased a small building and large tract of land for a rural retreat to escape the confines of court life.  His vision of a composition that harmonized with nature left room for wilderness as well as the development of formal gardens.


The balance of formal and informal landscapes is evident in the plan of the park below.

Screen shot 2014-07-12 at 9.50.45 PM

By 1718, a summer palace was planned on the site, named in honor of Peter’s wife, Catherine I (in Estonian Kadriorg translates as Catherine’s Valley).  To fulfill his vision of a seaside park and palace modeled after Peterhof in Saint Petersburg, Peter hired Roman Architect Niccolo Michetti and apprentice Gaettano Chiaveri.


The original gardens, inspired by Italian-French-Dutch design included a series of formal walkways, an oak grove, meadows and groupings of trees.  Chestnut trees, imported from Holland, were planted before being transported to Saint Petersburg.  The plan below is dated from 1823 and details the layout if the formal gardens.


As a setting for the Palace, three tiers of garden spaces were developed. These included a garden forecourt and lower and upper flower gardens to the rear of the Palace separated by the Mirage Fountain Wall.  Today the lower flower garden is the most tangible remnant of the original plan.



Beyond The Mirage Fountain Wall in the upper garden was the Mirage Pond.  Today this area of the garden is occupied by the Office of Estonia’s President who, I was told, rides his bicycle to work.  While I cannot confirm this, apparently he was out of the office on the day I visited as the flag was not flying.  The Office was built in 1937.


The Fountain Wall remains, adorned by sculptures depicting Olympic Gods while fountains in the shape of face masks modeled after Greek Gods line the wall panels.




“Poseidon” by sculptor Mati Karmin was placed in the fountain cascade in 2005″

Despite Peter’s elaborate plans and desire that “the park astonish visitors with the artistic cascade and its sculptures and water games,” upon his death in 1725 work on the gardens ceased.

At the end of the 19th century plans to renovate the park in the English Romantic style were developed reconfiguring the lower garden, reestablishing vistas to the sea and adding bicycle lanes and naturalistic landscape features.


In 1902 the “Russalka” monument, by sculptor Amandus Adamson, was installed at the end of one of the principle walkways to the sea in commemoration of the ship of the same name shipwrecked in 1893.



Russia ceded its assets in Tallinn to the Estonian Republic in 1920 “including moveables and immoveables, among them Kadriorg Palace and its land and park.”  Valuing the park as a representation of Estonian culture was seen as nationally important and “essential for expressing independence, dignity and awakening, all crucial at that time.”

A plan, to restore and redesign the park as a beautifully landscaped “People’s Park” suitable for hosting entertainment and political events was developed.  Buildings would be minimized to create a park equal to its European counterparts.


In 1934 the Kadriorg Committee was founded and a competition, won by Anton Soans, to create a truly modern park reflecting Estonia’s culture was held. A year later the State Parks Government was created and tasked (apparently without significant funding), to work with existing resources to develop a “comfortable and usable” park for “people of all ages and interests.”  Soans’ design was executed by Carl Kemkes and a German horticultural company.


The Swan Pond, prominently located near the park’s main entrance was refined and a decorative garden, the Kivilia Triangle completed.  Lawns, accentuated by a sundial and flower beds planted in traditional Estonian colors were added.

IMG_0767 IMG_0744


A Youth Park, which also contains a children’s museum, was added near the Swan Pond and remains a popular destination for families.



Formal and informal elements were added to the landscape including monuments to Estonian political figures.  The Apollo Belvedere sculpture (seen below) was sited in a meadow.



Pathways lined with perennial plantings lead to the formal rose garden.

The Kadriorg Park small enterprise association was founded in 1990 to oversee renovations to the park and its structures. The restored Palace re-opened as an art museum in 2000 complemented by a restoration of the contiguous formal flower garden and fountains.  This was followed by a reconstruction of the Mirage Fountain Wall and the creation of the rose garden planted with 5,600 roses.  The Swan Pond and surrounding landscapes were also restored.


In 2010 approval was received through the EU to reconstruct a pond in the North-East corner of the park and create a Japanese Tea Garden as a special feature to attract walkers beyond the Swan Pond and upper gardens. The garden, designed by Kyoto garden master Aiakujundaja Masao Sone, has become so popular that when I inquired about visiting Kadriorg Park, everyone I spoke with mentioned it as the one place within the park I had to see.


According to the website (translated from Estonian to English) the garden’s design was inspired by the Tallin’s old town roof landscape and each element, mountains, stones, ponds, touched by the hand of the garden master.


The garden is scheduled to be completed in 2015 and gates, a traditional tea room, lanterns, pagodas and “hand washing” dishes installed.


Designed using traditional Japanese elements, the garden’s plantings have been selected to adapt with Estonia’s climate.  According to Tallinn’s 2011 annual report 1,192 trees and 928 shrubs were planted in the Japanese garden, which contains the largest collection of rhododendrons in the region.

To view a 360 degree view of the Japanese Garden visit 360 Cities.



In the same spirit of independence and nationalistic pride that maintained Kadriorg Park as a place accessible to the public for three hundred years, the Tallinn Song Festival grounds, built upon land that once supported a nursery for the park are located at the edge of the park and identified in the drawing below as number 10.


A public venue, the Festival Grounds were the site where the “singing revolution” occurred, leading to the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania from Russia in the 1980’s. Here, upon the stage of a public space, political protests created real and lasting change.


My main objective in visiting Tallinn was to explore the medieval town center.  To my surprise 27% of Tallinn is green and in the Tower Square Park the Tallinn Flower Festival, on display from the end of May until the end of August, was in progress.



My afternoon in Kadriorg Park was an afterthought and my original goal was to visit the Japanese Garden.  Exploring the history of the park has been an adventure in and of itself a felicitous byproduct of my travels.

Additional information is available at Kadriorg Park where a schedule of 2014 events is listed.  On July 22nd the park celebrated its 296th anniversary.

Screen shot 2014-07-30 at 3.33.43 PM

 Copyright 2014 Patrice Todisco – All rights reserved 

Book Review: The Gardener of Versailles: My Life in the World’s Grandest Garden by Alain Baraton

gardner of versailles

For more than thirty years Alain Baraton has worked and lived at the Park of the Palace of Versailles, the world’s greatest garden. Here, amidst the venerated landscape designed by André Le Nôtre for King Louis XIV, he honed his horticultural skills, evolving from a seasonal ticket taker to gardener-in-chief. The Gardener of Versailles recounts his journey, serving as both a memoir and love-letter to the place that shaped his sensibilities and stirs his passion.

Baraton begins with the tragic storm that devastated Versailles in December 1992 when more than 10,000 trees, including some of the park’s most historic, were destroyed. In disbelief at the park’s damage, he was immediately called into action, tasked with overseeing the clean-up and restoration efforts. These activities empowered Baraton to write his story and acquire “a voice” to use in  the service of the gardens he loves. (More about the storm and its aftermath can be found on the website Chateau de Versailles).

The Gardener of Versailles is neither a sentimental or overly romanticized view of Baraton’s tenure at Versailles. Determined to show the public face of the park he regales the reader with tales of idiosyncratic encounters with colleagues, bureaucrats, tourists and the “regulars” who visit daily for any number of reasons, including a desire for solitude, the delusional belief that they are Marie Antoinette or to engage in romantic escapades.

Woven throughout is Baraton’s personal narrative which takes him from a directionless teen, haphazardly riding his motorbike throughout the French countryside, to a committed horticulturalist and gardener-in-chief with oversight for 80 gardeners and 350,000 trees. In this capacity, Baraton oversaw the restoration of the park to André Le Nôtre’s plan, employing historic techniques while experimenting with wildflowers and grasses in ancillary areas.


Baraton in front of the Parterres du Grand Trianon (Toute les Nouvelles).

As for Le Nôtre, to whom he devotes a chapter, Baraton expresses ambivalence. “A good gardener, son and grandson of gardeners” who wished to be a painter, André Le Nôtre is described as deeply sad, a social climber who was more of an architect than a gardener with “good connections, means and a king who adored him” in whom Baraton finds no trace of genius. For inspiration, he looks instead to his trio of gardening greats: Jean-Baptiste de la Quintinie, founder of the King’s potager, botanist Claude Richard and Jacques Briot, head gardener at the Trianon.


A bust of Le Nôtre at the entrance to Jardin des Tuileries.

Historical commentary aside, The Gardener of Versailles, provides a rare, personal and unprecedented view of one of the most iconic landscapes in the world and complements the existing canon of scholarly publications about the Palace, Gardens and Le Nôtre. Read it for fun or, as Baraton would suggest, joy, the essential ingredient that makes a good gardener.

The Gardener of Versailles was published to popular acclaim in France in 2006 and has been translated into English by Christopher Brent Murray.

To learn more about the gardens visit:

This review appeared in Leaflet A Massachusetts Horticultural Society Publication, July 2014.

Copyright © 2014 Patrice Todisco — All Rights Reserved

Kaisaniemi Botanic Garden: Helsinki


I have just returned from a trip to Finland and Estonia. While traveling I received notification that Landscape Notes was awarded the prestigious 2014 Silver Media Award of Achievement from the Garden Writers Association for best overall site. While both thrilled and humbled to be recognized for my work, I am also challenged by one of the judges’ comments to consider ways to make my articles easier to skim and expand my use of social media. Can videos be far behind?

While I do tend to get lost in reading about the places I explore, limitations do occur when the places that intrigue me are not well documented or, even more frustrating when I arrive, camera in hand, find that there is a truck erecting an event tent in the main forecourt, thunder clouds threaten or as in the case of the Kaisaniemi Botanic Garden in Helsinki, the site I wish to photograph is under construction and/or restoration as the garden staff cheerfully informs in the sign below.


Botanic Gardens in historic cities are a particular interest of mine and, timing aside, Helsinki’s Botanic Garden, located in the city’s core just minutes from the Central Rail Station, provided an excellent example of how a Botanic Garden can be integrated into a dense urban neighborhood.

Many of the earliest Botanic Gardens were similarly sited in Italian cities and dedicated solely to the academic study of medicinal plants.  Developed by Universities in Pisa (1543), Padua (1545), Florence (1545) and Bologna (1547) these “Physic” gardens provided the prototype for similar endeavors throughout central Europe, most often in academic settings (such as Oxford in 1621), until the age of exploration and international trade shifted their focus to newly discovered plant species, public entertainment and education.


Plan of Turku Botanic Garden

Associated with the University of Finland, the Kaisaniemi Botanic Garden is considered the country’s oldest scientific garden. It was founded in 1678 in Turku by Peter Kalm (1716-1779), a naturalist, botanist and agricultural economist. A student of Carl Linnaeus, Kalm traveled widely throughout North America where he befriended both Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram. Linnaeus named the native american species Kalmia (laurel) in his honor. The map above, of the Botanic Garden at Turku, is attributed to Kalm’s tenure.

Following a devastating fire the garden was relocated to Helsinki in 1829 and sited within a municipal park designed by architect Carl Ludvig Engel as a “walking area for the denizens of Helsinki.” Engel’s park design included formal tree-lined promenades and a landscaped garden with a winding path system in the English romantic style.

1881 Unknown artist swan lake in K park

Kaisaniemi Park

Similar design elements are visible in the Botanic Garden’s plan which has two distinct areas including formal gardens and an arboretum. According to sources, the plan was designed by Franz Faldermann, head gardener at the Saint Petersburg Botanic garden.

In the 1837 map below, by C.W. Glyden, the decade-old Botanic Garden is located in the upper right hand corner of the Kaisaniemi Park with its formal and informal path systems clearly visible.


The 1837 map can be compared to the plan below of the garden today.  Consistent with the original plan, the formal design elements are contrasted with the informal path system of the arboretum. Principal structures remain sited along a main axis with a forecourt and visitor services provided at the entrance to the glasshouses directly accessible from a tree-lined avenue.


The first glasshouse was erected in the garden in 1832. A series of structures followed with the beautiful, existing wrought iron buildings  designed by architect Gustaf Nystrom from 1889 to 1896.  Damaged during the Continuation War (1941-1944) they were rebuilt in the 1950’s and restored from 1996-1998.


A central feature of the gardens, the ten interconnected glasshouses are open year round and contain 800 species of plants originating  within the same longitude as Finland. A cross-section of environments is represented including the Mediterranean forest, African savannah and desert, South African rain forest and species representative of Australia.

Although I visited in June, when the light is at its longest arc, I imagined how wonderful these glasshouses would be to visit during a dark and snowy winter afternoon. To read more about the glasshouses and their salubrious effects during the winter months visit:


A goal of the original garden was to support a collection of all of the species in Finland as well as those that would thrive within its climatic conditions.  Today, the garden is divided into a series of outdoor spaces that include the french formal garden (under restoration), designed in the 1830’s “to reveal the secrets of the classification system of flowering plants” and compliment the glasshouses.

To see a plan of the garden detailing the location of individual plant species visit:


The reflecting pool contains this bronze sculpture of a pair of rather daunting eagles. I have been unable to locate information about the artist or divine their significance and date of installation.


In 1884, a rock garden with plants from torrid environments, the first of its kind in Finland, was established.


A more recent addition is a sensory garden designed to stimulate vision, smell and touch. Rare and fragile species that barely survive the harsh climatic conditions in Finland are planted close by.





The arboretum surrounding the garden offers a contrast to the urban environment in which the garden is sited providing cooling shade from the long summer days and a habitat for diverse species. When I visited the rhododendrons and azaleas were in bloom.




Affiliated with the Finnish Museum of Natural History Helsinki’s Botanic Garden maintains 2,800 species of plants for use in research as well as education.  The outdoor garden is just over four hectares in size (approximately ten acres) and is one of Helsinki’s most popular visitor attractions.  Open year round the grounds are accessible free of charge.  There is a modest admission fee to the glasshouses which also host exhibits.


The garden has a small seasonal cafe.  It also has a series of educational facilities including a herbarium used for research and accessible by arrangement.



As I mentioned earlier the garden is being restored and much of it was under construction and/or restoration. I was unsuccessful in obtaining information about the plans for the project although I did learn that the work is being undertaken by landscape architect, Gretel Hemgard, designer of the Botanic Garden in Kumpula.


And finally a word about the word LUOMUS.  You may have noticed that it is prominently featured on the sign informing visitors that the garden is under construction.

Its literal translation (according to Google) is creation and it is the name through which the Finnish Museum of Natural History, Kaisaniemi and Kumpula Botanic Gardens are identified as interconnected research and educational institutions through the University of Finland.  The Natural History Museum is also conveniently located in the city, within walking distance of the garden.



Copyright © 2014 Patrice Todisco  — All Rights Reserved 






In the Royal Domain: Drottningholm


While we might never be royals we can appreciate their proclivity for creating landscapes and gardens that are available to the public, particularly those that are free of charge.

Sweden’s first World Heritage site, the Royal Domain of Drottningholm, is such a place; an ensemble of architecturally significant structures comprised of a palace, a perfectly preserved theater dating from 1766 and a Chinese pavilion set within 315 acres of gardens, parks, farmland and natural areas.


The Theater Complex

Deemed the best royal residence built during the 18th century in Sweden, Drottningholm is also the finest example of a northern European royal residence inspired by the work of French landscape designer Andre Le Notre.


Known as “The Domain” Drottningholm’s palace and landscape have evolved throughout three centuries of ownership by the Swedish Royal Family.  Portions of the palace and all of the gardens and landscape are accessible to the public year round. I visited last June.

I am embarrassed to share that until I glimpsed an aerial view of  Drottningholm on my flight into Stockholm it was not a garden with which I was familiar.  What I did discover is that the magnificent Baroque gardens, so visible from the air, are complemented by a series of aditional landscapes including a romantic garden in the English style. The gardens from each period remain intact and provide a rare opportunity to experience the evolving taste in landscape styles.  The plan below illustrates the two garden plans with the formal and naturalistic gardens visible.

img052Records reveal that Drottningholm has been owned by the Royal family since the 16th century. The name Drottningholm (“Queen’s islet”) derives from this period when a stone palace was built by John lll of Sweden for his queen, Catherine Jagellon.

Catherine, on the left in the image below, was the first of three Queens whose imprint can be found on the gardens today. Dowager Queen Eleonora Hedvig (1636-1715), center, is credited with the grand vision evident in the palace and layout of the Baroque gardens while the Chinese Pavilion and gardens were a birthday present for Queen Louisa Ulrika, (1720-1782) on the right, in 1753.

Screen shot 2014-05-26 at 12.59.30 PM

In 1661 Queen Eleonora Hedvig, 23 years of age, initiated planning for the palace and accompanying grand garden after an original structure, begun in 1576, was destroyed by fire. To achieve her vision she employed Sweden’s most famous architect, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (1615 – 1681). His design for the landscape, heavily influenced by André Le Nôtre’s work at Vaux-le-Vicomte in France, included formal avenues, embroidered parterres and a series of canals.

The image below, “The Noble Swedish palace to Drottningholm against the garden” is attributed to Jean Benoit Winkler, 1700.

Screen shot 2014-05-30 at 7.47.13 AM

Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (1654-1728) assumed responsibility for the garden’s completion upon his father’s death and expanded the original design so completely that the work is considered his own independent creation.  The image below, a wall fresco at the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm by Swedish artist Carl Larsson, depicts architects Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and Carl Hårleman.

Slottsbygget med Nicodemus Tessin dy och Carl Hårleman.

Influenced by Le Nôtre, Tessin the Younger traveled extensively in Europe studying in Italy, England and France.  On a visit to Versailles it is reputed that he toured the garden with King Louis XIV. It is also speculated one of Drottningholm’s garden plans (dated 1665) was drawn in France under the supervision of Le Nôtre. The sketch plan of Vaux le Vicomte, seen below, is attributed to Tessin the Younger.


Laid out in the 1680‘s the Embroidery Parterre with its borders of flower beds, grass, gravel, crushed brick and black hyperite stone was the first area of the Baroque Garden to be built. It combines with a water parterre to create a series of outdoor rooms extending the Palace’s interior into the landscape. The parterre was restored in 1998.



The Baroque garden, extends from the Palace westward in four sections. A formal parterre connects to the water garden followed by cascades and bosquets leading to a large wilderness known as the star.


The Crown Fountain, sited on the central axis of the garden is a pivotal feature in the garden. It is by Flemish sculptor Adriaen de Vries.


Avenues of European limes form a three-dimensional framework for the Baroque Garden reinforcing its longitudinal axis.


Originally planted in 1684 the avenues took 40 years to complete and contain 792 trees arranged in ditches dug and filled with soil, fertilizer and peat. Between 1997 and 2011 the National Property Board, which manages the Palace property, rejuvenated the lime avenues one section at a time. As part of the project cuttings were taken from trees near the Palace and force grown until they were large enough to plant in later stages of the restoration.

Garden of the Chinese Pavilion:


In 1753 on a rise in the hunting park, a Chinese Pavilion and park were constructed as a birthday gift for Queen Lovisa Ulrika. She  described her delight in a letter to her mother;

“He led me to one side of the garden and suddenly to my surprise, I found myself gazing upon a real-fairy tale creation, for the King had had a Chinese palace built, the loveliest imaginable.”


Queen Lovisa Ulrika, founder of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities was a formidable collector of art and natural history objects.  Within the Palace she created a forum for scholarship and intellectual exchange. The Chinese pavilion, sited at a distance from the Palace and designed in a new, informal style offered refuge from the rigidity of Palace life.

The pavilion, built in 1769 to replace a wooden pavilion from 1753, is considered one of the most important examples of this type of structure conserved in Europe. The French Rococo architecture has an exotic character, with Chinese and oriental elements, the height of fashion during the period. The interiors are considered among the most splendid in Swedish Rococo. The exterior of the Chinese Pavilion was renovated in 1943-55 and the interior in 1959-68.


The garden with flower beds surrounded by box hedges included aviaries, pheasantries and a menagerie complemented by walks lined by chestnut trees.  Its naturalistic design contributed to its appeal.


Seating, promenades and viewing areas were arranged within the surrounding woodlands where, as a complement to existing conifers, large stands of deciduous trees were planted.  Queen Louisa Ulrika and architect Carl Frederik Adelcrantz collaborated on the landscape design.  The plan below, was drawn by surveyor Lars R. Kokeritz in 1779.


When the Chinese Pavilion was rebuilt the garden was modified to include a series of lime bosquets adapted to the contours of the land.  Aviaries and trellis pavilions planted with honeysuckle, lilacs and mulberries added to the romantic, secluded feel of the landscape  providing a sense of being in a cabinet de verdure, a secret green room.

Today the landscape areas near the Chinese Pavilion include a series of educational gardens and displays.


The gardens designed for the Chinese Pavilion provide a transition for the English landscape garden that was to follow.

The Landscape Garden:


In 1777 King Gustav III assumed possession of Drottningholm and began work on an “English Park” in an area north of the Baroque gardens.  While an active participant in the design process, Gustav  collaborated with Adelcrantz and architect and landscape designer Frederick Magnus Piper.

Piper, like Tessin the Younger before him, traveled extensively in Europe, spending time in England where he apprenticed with William Chambers a Scottish-Swedish architect based in London. Familiar   with the theory and practice of the “new” English style of gardening Piper visited and recorded Stourhead, Painshill and The Leasowes and used his experiences to inform the design of the new landscape park at Drottningholm.


IMG_2361Nature reigned supreme and the formal paths of the Baroque landscape were modified to complement a series of picturesque elements including ponds and islands. Access was by meandering footpaths through meadows and fields punctuated with artistically sited stands of trees and classical sculptures.



Sculptures acquired by Gustav in his travels abroad were artfully juxtaposed within the natural landscape. Buildings and monuments were added to the landscape including a Gothic Tower in 1792.


In 1797 Piper developed a master plan of the gardens and grounds of Drottningholm. The watercolor drawing below depicts site lines as well as the formal elements sited within the naturalistic landscape.


During the 19th century the park and gardens were not well maintained and the manicured French character of the landscape was partially lost. Inscribed a World Heritage site in 1991, the landscape and gardens continue to be restored.


The 2007-2012 Drottningholm World Heritage Site World Heritage Management Plan notes the area is an important garden and park environment. The palace establishment “includes three distinct stylistic ideals, with the Baroque garden, the gardens around the Chinese pavilion in Rococo style and the English Romantic landscape park.The gardens and parks with their clear characteristics bear witness to both changing style ideals and long continuity.”

Accessible by ferry from Stockholm Drottningholm receives more than 500,000 visitors a year.



Copyright © 2014 Patrice Todisco  — All Rights Reserved




Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 183 other followers